Elements of an essay paper


Introduction

Few, Stephen. Tutorials: Manuscript Preparation. Editage insights. Cactus Communications, Inc. Use non-textual elements, such as figures, tables, graphs, maps, photographs, etc. Readers should be able to discern the meaning of non-textual elements on their own without having to refer to the text to understand the data being presented. Reference to a non-textual element in the text of your paper should focus on describing its significance in relation to the research problem or the topic being discussed.

Non-textual elements must have neat, legible titles, be simple, and have detailed captions that are written in complete sentences; they should fully explain the item without forcing the reader to refer to the text. Conversely, the reader should not have to refer back and forth from the text to the non-textual elements to understand the paper. General rules about using non-textual elements in your research paper:. References to non-textual elements are generally put in parentheses , e.

Using too many non-textual elements disrupts the narrative flow of your paper, making it more difficult for the reader to synthesize and interpret your overall research.

Elements of a Good Thesis Statement

If you have to use a lot of non-textual elements, consider organizing them in an appendix. However, be careful not to let aesthetics and artistry overwhelm the message you are trying to convey to the reader. Use these features only to help improve the reader's understanding of the information being presented.

For example, if a pie chart is being used to show the distribution of responses to a survey, use distinctive colors to distinguish between each part of the chart. Effective Writing Center. University of Maryland; Durbin Jr. Language and Learning Online, Monash University.. Contact us. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Using Non-Textual Elements This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.

The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Importance of Using Non-Textual Elements There are a variety of reasons for including non-textual elements in your paper. Among them are: A picture is worth a thousand words.

Format for a Research Paper - A Research Guide for Students

Some students will understand structure better with the help of a metaphor. One particularly nice metaphor courtesy of Dara is to view the structure of an academic paper as a set of stairs. The paper begins with a small step; the first paragraph gives the most simple assumption or support for the argument. The paper then builds, slowly and gradually towards the top of the staircase.

When the paper reaches its conclusion, it has brought the reader up to the top of the staircase to a point of new insight.

From the balcony the reader can gaze out upon the original statement or question from higher ground. And the order should be supple enough to allow the writer to explore the topic, not just hammer home a thesis. The repeating of key or thesis concepts is especially helpful at points of transition from one section to another, to show how the new section fits in. Persons or documents, referred to, summarized, or quoted, that help a writer demonstrate the truth of his or her argument. They are typically sources of a factual information or data, b opinions or interpretation on your topic, c comparable versions of the thing you are discussing, or d applicable general concepts.

Your sources need to be efficiently integrated and fairly acknowledged by citation.

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Format for a Research Paper

When you pause in your demonstration to reflect on it, to raise or answer a question about it—as when you 1 consider a counter-argument—a possible objection, alternative, or problem that a skeptical or resistant reader might raise; 2 define your terms or assumptions what do I mean by this term? The orienting question is, what does my reader need here? The answer can take many forms: necessary information about the text, author, or event e.

The trick is to orient briefly and gracefully. Stance is defined by such features as style and tone e.

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Your stance should be established within the first few paragraphs of your essay, and it should remain consistent. Your style should be exact and clear should bring out main idea and action of each sentence, not bury it and plain without being flat should be graceful and a little interesting, not stuffy. To inform—i. Finally, it again becomes more general as you try to apply your findings to the world at general.

Incorporate these five important ingredients into your formal essays

Whilst there are a few differences between the various disciplines, with some fields placing more emphasis on certain parts than others, there is a basic underlying structure. These steps are the building blocks of constructing a good research paper. This section outline how to lay out the parts of a research paper, including the various experimental methods and designs. The principles for literature review and essays of all types follow the same basic principles.

For many students, writing the introduction is the first part of the process, setting down the direction of the paper and laying out exactly what the research paper is trying to achieve. For others, the introduction is the last thing written, acting as a quick summary of the paper. As long as you have planned a good structure for the parts of a research paper, both approaches are acceptable and it is a matter of preference. A good introduction generally consists of three distinct parts:. Ideally, you should try to give each section its own paragraph, but this will vary given the overall length of the paper.

Look at the benefits to be gained by the research or why the problem has not been solved yet.

How to Write a Research Paper Title

Perhaps nobody has thought about it, or maybe previous research threw up some interesting leads that the previous researchers did not follow up. Another researcher may have uncovered some interesting trends, but did not manage to reach the significance level , due to experimental error or small sample sizes. The research problem does not have to be a statement, but must at least imply what you are trying to find.

Page 3: Elements of the Writing Process

Many writers prefer to place the thesis statement or hypothesis here, which is perfectly acceptable, but most include it in the last sentences of the introduction, to give the reader a fuller picture. The idea is that somebody will be able to gain an overall view of the paper without needing to read the whole thing. Literature reviews are time-consuming enough, so give the reader a concise idea of your intention before they commit to wading through pages of background. In this section, you look to give a context to the research, including any relevant information learned during your literature review.

You are also trying to explain why you chose this area of research, attempting to highlight why it is necessary.


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The second part should state the purpose of the experiment and should include the research problem. The third part should give the reader a quick summary of the form that the parts of the research paper is going to take and should include a condensed version of the discussion. This should be the easiest part of the paper to write, as it is a run-down of the exact design and methodology used to perform the research. Obviously, the exact methodology varies depending upon the exact field and type of experiment. There is a big methodological difference between the apparatus based research of the physical sciences and the methods and observation methods of social sciences.

However, the key is to ensure that another researcher would be able to replicate the experiment to match yours as closely as possible, but still keeping the section concise. You can assume that anybody reading your paper is familiar with the basic methods, so try not to explain every last detail. For example, an organic chemist or biochemist will be familiar with chromatography, so you only need to highlight the type of equipment used rather than explaining the whole process in detail. In the case of a survey , if you have too many questions to cover in the method, you can always include a copy of the questionnaire in the appendix.

elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper
elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper
elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper
elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper
elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper
elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper
elements of an essay paper Elements of an essay paper

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